So I wanted to deploy an update to my web site Ooble but I need to update or replace Fabric first.
The Problem with Fabric
Fabric is a tool for orchestrating shell commands run locally and via SSL on a
server using Python. For example, after writing an article for Alleged
Literature, I use the command
fab deploy to run the unit tests, push to
the upstream Git repository, log in to the server, run
git pull and various
other commands to update the web server.
The problem I have is that my website deployment used Fabric 1.14, which
only runs on Python 2. The new version, Fabric 2 supports
Python 3, but it is a ground-up rewrite with a new API so cannot be
easily used with my existing
The Problem With Python 2
Python 2 has been superseded by Python 3. I have converted my Django-powered web sites to use Python 3, so it seemed to make sense to tidy away some of the redundant copies of Python 2 I still have on my MacBook Air, but Alas! it turns out one of them was the one into which I had installed Fabric. As a result the Fabric shell script still exists but fails.
I could in principle reinstall Fabric. There are a few blockers.
First, the remaining Python-2 install on my Macbook is the one provided with the operating system. This is Python 2.7 but (a) lacks Pip and (b) will be removed in a future macOS update. So I am reluctant to rely on that.
I thought I could reinstall the
python@2 package I had installed via
Homebrew, but as of 2020 is no longer included in Homebrew’s repertoire.
Down the memory hole with you!
I tried building Python 2.7.17 from source (it really is just a case of
./configure && make && make test), but it fails its tests! The issue seems
to be issue38295, probably fixed in umcomming Python 2.7.18. So I could try
installing the release candidate but that seems a bit cavalier.
There is another implementation of Python 2: PyPy. It is still available on Homebrew, for now. With a bit of finessing the build environment I got it to install complete with the crypto packages it uses to implement SSH. This makes it possible to run Fabric one last time, using
$ /usr/local/share/pypy/fab --version Fabric 1.14.1 Paramiko 2.7.1
But I really do want to be abandonning Python 2 now it is no longer supported (2.7.18 is the last last final final release), so I have to migrate away from this solution as soon as I can.
How About Fabric 2?
Isn’t it about time I ported my Fabfiles to use Fabric 2?
In the longer term I definitely want to escape from Fabric 1. Given I will need to rework my task definitions anyway, there is no particular reason not to migrate to a different platform altogether. I could try tricking out my hobby server with an Ansible or turn it in to a Kubernetes cluster if I am feeling especially masochistic.
But first I need to understand Fabric 2 enough to see whether it is still the shortest path to getting back to something that works.
My copy was broken so I started by reinstalling it:
$ brew reinstall fabric $ fab --version Fabric 2.5.0 Paramiko 2.7.1 Invoke 1.4.1
The introductory documentation starts with a script that imports
fabric, which fails because installing Fabric (the command) apparently does not install
fabric (the package) where Python can see it. So I tried wrapping the tutorial script as a Fabfile:
from fabric import task @task def whatever(c): result = c.run('uname -s') print(result.stdout.strip())
And when I run I get a stack trace and a complaint that it cannot find its own libraries.
$ pipenv run fab -f neofabfile.py -H firstname.lastname@example.org whatever Traceback (most recent call last): File "/usr/local/bin/fab", line 11, in <module> load_entry_point('fabric==2.5.0', 'console_scripts', 'fab')() File "/usr/local/Cellar/fabric/2.5.0_4/libexec/lib/python3.8/site-packages/invoke/program.py", … File "/Users/pdc/Projects/linotak/fabfile.py", line 5, in <module> from fabric.api import local, settings, abort, run, cd, env, prefix ModuleNotFoundError: No module named 'fabric.api'
Even though I specified a config file with
-f it is trying to read the old
fabfile.py. So I rename the old fabfile & renamed the new one to fabfile.py.
Tried this in
@task def update_requirements(c): """Update requirements.txt to match Pipfile.""" c.run('pipenv lock -r > requirements.txt')
It is essentially a straight copy from the old fabfile. I can run
pipenv run fab update-requirements
But after printing messages from Pipenv complaining about my Python versions,
I end up with an empty
requirments.txt. I don’t know whether the problem is
Pipenv being bloody-minded about Python minor versions, or something I need to
change with the task definition.
I am wondering if the best thing to do is to create Makefile entries for the
things I need to have run on the server and invoke them via
ssh … sh -c '…'.
If all I am doing is running canned shell commands, how much value is Fabric providing?
(To be continued)