Last week I was struggling with Adobe Flash development, wishing that my recommendation that we drop Flash and spend the programming time on improving our fall-back HTML+JavaScript version instead had not fallen on such stony ground. Then on Sunday there was a flurry of articles speculating that not only is Apple’s iPhone missing an implementation of Flash, but Apple might not intend to add one---and might even want to start pushing web developers towards alternatives like HTML+JavaScript.

No Flash for iPhone?

There is no Flash plug-in for iPhone. But will Apple be adding one real soon now via a software update? The only person who thinks yes is Walt Mossberg (one of the four reviewers privileged with an advance review unit). Everyone else writing post-iPhone-day who thinks Apple will is citing Mr Mossberg. Apple has not said anything one way or another.

Reasons for not believing in Flash on iPhone include the following:

There is another reason, which is the same as for the SDK issue I mentioned last month: how will the no-mouse GUI work with Flash’s mouse-oriented interactions? Flash movies that implement menus work by detecting mouse-down, mouse-move, and mouse-up events, and working out which part of the picture was clicked on; iPhone has no mouse, and this means there are no mouse-clicks for your Flash menus or Flash games or Flash galleries to be controlled by.

Why You Might Not Want Flash

While it might be that some people find developing a web site in Flash is easier than in HTML+JavaScript, this only works if you can guarantee that your viewers will have Flash Player installed (and that it is a recent enough version). Adobe offer a disturbingly large Flash Detection Kit, and Adobe claim 98% of desktops have Player 6 or later. BUT if you do need your fancy user interface to work whether or not your readers have Flash Player installed, you will need to also develop an HTML+JavaScript alternative to the Flash version, and even if Flash is easier than HTML+JavaScript, Flash+HTML+JavaScript certainly is not.

My project at work falls in to that trap: we have to provide a no-Flash alternative to the Flash version, partly in case our customer’s customers’ IT departments uninstall Flash, and partly because Flash does not seem to include right-to-left scripts like Hebrew. to do this we have to have a script on one page to detect Flash and store a flag in a cookie that we examine on another page, and then through and elaborate mechanism pass to the plug-in that generates the HTML or Flash code so that it knows which version of the page to generate. This is a lot of extra work, and extra complexity (and potential for extra bugs), and we could avoid it by dropping the Flash version and spend the effort improving the HTML version instead. As a bonus, we reduce the number of programming languages you need to know by one, by eliminating ActionScript.

Is it really possible to produce as slick an interface without Flash? As a case in point, Flickr used to display photos and annotations with Flash. They then replaced that interface with a more sophisticated HTML+JavaScript version. Apple have also dropped Flash from the Apple web site: the fancy, cover-flow-inspired product catalogue uses JavaScript, not Flash.

Web Developers Should Learn JavaScript

Flash developers will be dismayed at the idea of dropping Adobe’s integrated development environment (IDE) for Flash in favour of editing HTML and JavaScript with some text editor instead. I, on the other hand, would gladly never use the Flash IDE ever again. The IDE is a strange beastie, combining a slightly quirky vector-graphics editor with a feeble text editor and dysfunctional debugger. I quickly switched to using jEdit to edit the ActionScript files, of which I needed a fair number.

ActionScript is not a very nice language to work in; they have bolted a JavaScript syntax on to the original version, but it has surprising gaps in its competence (I was taken aback to discover I could not used regexes to fix up strings, and it seems to be even more stupid about implicit type conversions than JavaScript). I gave up on the debugger, resorting to the old-fashioned approach of having the program print lots of messages to tell me how it was getting along.

With JavaScript, on the other hand, there is more than one debugger available: Microsoft Visual Studio .NET 2003 has a perfectly fine debugger, with breakpoints, inspection of variable values, and all those other fine things. Firefox has an extension called Venkman which I have not used myself but which is supposed to be good. It is because JavaScript is an open standard (unlike Flash) that we have a multiplicity of good debuggers rather than one bad one.

Time spent learning to program JavaScript well will help you wherever you use JavaScript, whereas ActionScript expertise only profits you if you stick with Flash. You can use JavaScript to extend Mozilla Firefox and even to write the server side of your web application if your server supports Server-side JavaScript. The Helma Object Publisher (HOP) in particular offers an interesting approach to web programming, with JavaScript used from top to bottom.

11 July